INTRODUCTION OF LINUX FOR BEGINNERS

Introduction of Linux for beginners 1/9

Getting Access of Linux

Knowing where to start when you are studying a new skill can be a challenge, primarily when the topic appears so vast. There can be so much information accessible that you can’t even decide where to start. Or wrongly, you start down the path of learning and instantly learn too many theories, commands, and nuances that aren’t explained. This kind of activity is frustrating and leaves you with tons of questions than answers.

I don’t make any assumptions about your experience or knowledge of Linux. No matter how hard it would be, you will be guided step by step, applying a logical and methodical path. As new concepts, commands, or jargon are faced, they are explained in understandable language, making it clear for anyone to understand easily.  So let’s get started. You’re going to need access to a Linux system. If you already have a Linux system, you can skip ahead to the next.

In my view, there are three methods by which we can use Linux on/in our system. 

  1. Using it in our device, like an ordinary OS works which mean Linux will be only dedicated for that particular machine or using dual boot there will be two OS in a single machine.
  2. Using web hosting. Means if you are a user of web hosting service, by which you host your website, then you may already have a Linux account that you can use, but all hosting providers don’t provide “SSH” (stand for Secure Shell it provides a route to attach to a server over a network), so you need to see the plan details or contact the providers. You can sign up for one and utilize it for shell access. Shared web hosting providers charge a few cents/paisa per month.
  3. Using Virtualization. Means you can install and use an isolated OS inside your primary one, by which you can open many Operating Systems in a single screen.

There are two software available for virtualization .

  • VMware
  • Virtual box

 But I will recommend to use VMware because it has pretty good Interface. So It’s pretty easy to install with default promoted settings.

Note: I will use Virtualization Method and Web Hosting method. Because I am making It for hackers I will use Kali and Ubuntu.

Creating Hosting Account

For hosting or server I will use DigitalOcean, it’s a cloud computing company.

       Requirements:

  1. PuttyGen
  2. Putty
  3. DigitalOcean Account

Step 1: You need Putty and PuttyGen (https://www.putty.org/) installed in your computer.

Step 2: Go to DigitalOcean (https://m.do.co/c/7994e32e6310) sign up & Login.

Step 3: Create a Droplet to run Linux, and I will select Ubuntu 18.04.3

Step 4: Now select your preferred Compute Resources, I will select 5$/Month which is for this tutorial, you can choose your preferred compute resources.

Step 5: You can choose your nearest datacentre, I will choose my nearest one which is India.

Step 6: Now there is two option, first is SSH and second is simple Username and Password. I will choose SSH because it will create a lot of encryption.

Step 7: Basically DigitalOcean and other platform need a public key for authentication, so you need to use PuttyGen to generate public key and you also need Private key which is only for your computer. Now save public and private key in a separate folder.

(i) Generate the Public key:

(ii) Copy the generated public key and paste it on Digitalocean:

(iii) Put key passphrase to create more secure SSH connection:

(iv) Save public key and private key separately in a folder:

(v) Give a name your hostname, which should consist no space or special character:

Step 8: Copy and paste the Public key on “Add Public SSH option”, then wright your hostname “anything”. Crosscheck that everything is placed or not then come to bottom and Deploy your droplet by pressing “Create Droplet”.

Once you are successfully Deployed, you will see something similar to this:

Opening Ubuntu via SSH on Windows

Step 1: To access Ubuntu via SSH you need to launch Putty. Then specify your Hostname/ IP-address & Port 22(for SSH).

Step 2: Now you are accessing through SSH so you need to authenticate your private key. To authenticate your private key, go to Category list > SSH > Auth now upload your private key.

Step 3: After pressing open.Putty will prompt a dialog box, which will say if the Putty catches the SSH and if you press ‘Yes’ then It will never prompt again for this subsequent connection. So simply press ‘YES’ to avoid that prompt later when you will open that specified server again.

Step 4: After pressing “Yes“, terminal will open and it will ask for user and passphrase/password. Simply type root and that password you have to enter when you created private key, after putting everything successfully then you will be using a Linux on Windows.


Installing Kali Linux In VMware

Step 1: First Download the latest version of Vmware from there official website and Install it with default option link: Click Here.

Step 2: First Download the latest version of Kali Linux: Click Here [I will use Kali Linux 64-Bit version 2019.4].

Step 3: Open command prompt (ctrl+r and type cmd and open it) and type systeminfo so u need to Download Kali Linux 64bit.

Step 4: Now reboot your Computer and open BIOS and make sure you selected virtualization option.(you will get the details of Enabling virtualization on your computer in the video description) very Important Step.

Step 5: Now you open VMware, Click on Create New Virtual Machine.

Step 6: Select Typical.

Step 7: Click on Installer disk image file (iso).

Step 8: Select Linux.

Step 9: Now Select your preferred Version I will select Debian 10.x64bit.

Step 10: Now gave a name of your Virtual Machine .

Step 11: Don’t change the default path (my recommendation).

Step 12: Set a disk space (Minimum is 20 G.B) I will choose 25.0 G.B and select [Store virtual disk as a single file].

Step 13: Select Customize Hardware > Go to ram selection option (If you have more than 8 G.B ram on your computer,then you can choose 4 G.B or more) In my case I have 4 G.B ram so I can set 1400 – 2 G.B [Maximum].

Step 14: Now select processor Option and set 2 [Number of Processor] & 2 [Number of cores per processor] > Close > Finish. Now Click on [Power on this machine].

Step 15: Now Click on [Power on this machine] & select Graphic Install [use up down key].

Step 16: Select your preferred Language.

Step 17: Select your Location [Mine India]

Step 18: Configure the keyboard.

Step 19: Set a Hostname.

Step 20: DEFAULT it blank [Configure the Network].

Step 21: Set the password and this password will ask later for login [Make sure you memorize or note it somewhere].

Step 22: Select [Guided use entire disk].

Step 23: Select [first option].

Step 24: Select [All files in one partition]

Step 25: Select [Finish partitioning and write changes to disk]

Step 26: Select (YES) [Write the changes to disks] (It will take some time …Be patient)

Step 27: Select (NO) [Use a network mirror]

Step 28: Select (YES) [Install The GRUB boot loader to the master bootrecord]

Step 29: Select (/dev/sda) [Device for boot loader installation]

Step 30: It will auto reboot. Then type root as a default username and your password.

Step 31: So If you see this type of successful login then congrats you Installed Kali Linux on VMware.

I explained everything step by step, in case you have found any issue feel free to comment down below. INTRODUCTION OF LINUX FOR BEGINNERS 2/9 is coming.

About the author

Orvill

Hi, I'm Orvill Samanta, an aspiring blogger with an obsession for all things tech. This blog is dedicated to helping peoples learn about technology.

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